Narcissistic-perfectionist type (NP)
From: "NPA Personality Theory"
© 2008 A.M. Benis
Sanguine perfectionistic non-aggressive type
NP types are usually reserved, unaggressive individuals, tending toward a sanguine complexion and a propensity to blush easily. This is the dutiful, aloof "quiet achiever," who is obsessive and compulsive with regard to order, symmetry and neatness, often reflected in handwriting. Despite being unaggressive, these individuals can be very stubborn. Low temperament individuals may be described as "rigid," "wooden," "melancholic," or "bovine," while high temperament individuals can be "nervous birds" and may be more prone to intemperate behavior. NP monarchs are sometimes "lambs among the wolves." Tall and lean physical stature is common but not universal.
Genotype: nnP, nnPP, nnPa, nnPPa
Animal Model: orangutan, gorilla
Inheritance pattern: An NP type must have at least one parent who is either an N or an NP type. Two NP types could have children of any character type with the exception of A or PA types.
Infertility: Increased probability of miscarriages and stillbirths when mated with either an A or a PA type.
Rage: Narcissistic rage (mass discharge of parasympathetic nervous system).
Also known as: Obsessive-compulsive personality. Phlegmatic-melancholic personality. Bovine personality. "Nervous bird" personality. "The quiet achiever."
Complexion: Tending toward sanguine or flushed in individuals of light skin color.
Smile: Uncommon sudden warm, radiant sheepish smile, like Cheshire cat appearing in the mist. Sometimes gingival smile (broadly exposing gums and teeth).
Photograph: Looks at camera. Relaxed face; sheepish or radiant "limelight" smile.
Gestures: Sometimes "narcissistic arms" gesture in which the arms are extended in front of the individual, with palms up and the fingers somewhat spread apart. It is a pose often assumed by singers and by religious leaders when praising their gods.
Handwriting: Almost invariably well-formed, with each letter clearly legible. Sometimes striking calligraphic quality.
Sexuality: Tendency to promiscuity: very low. Tendency to ambivalence in sexual orientation: very low.
Population Genetics: "The Punctilious Habitancy," having a high prevalence of NP types and very few A or PA types. (Examples: Switzerland, parts of China, indigenous Alaska & Yucatan).
Susceptibilities: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD, may be masked by individual's perfectionist trait). Tantrums. "Control freak." Unipolar depression. Bipolar depression (manic-depressive disease). Postpartum depression. Focused, disciplined criminal. Acute episode of paranoia with delusion of being poisoned. Periodic (schizophreniform) psychosis. Schizophrenia. Asperger syndrome, Autism. Epilepsy (seizure disorder). Lymphoma (Hodgkin's Disease), gastric (stomach) cancer, childhood leukemia, migraine headache, rheumatic and congenital heart disease, Down's syndrome, varicose veins, hemorrhoids, CVA (stroke).
Coronary artery disease is rare in the NP type.
Pitfalls: Low temperament individuals can be mistaken for PA types or compliant NPA= types. High temperament individuals can superficially resemble NPA types. Also, NP types (either high or low temperament) in a position of authority can be rigid disciplinarians, inflicting severely cruel punishment, leading to the mistaken conclusion of the A trait (pseudoaggression). The compulsive need for "control" may be misinterpreted as the "thirst for power" characteristic of the A trait. In imminent psychosis the hyperactive behavior of the NP type can mimic aggressive and even sadistic behavior. Not all NP individuals of light skin color have a baseline sanguine (pinkish) complexion: it may tend toward pallor. A gingival, narcissistic smile is striking when seen, but may be rare, especially in melancholic NP individuals.
From Chapter 5: A model of human behavior
Narcissistic-perfectionist type (NP)
This individual has narcissistic qualities that are mediated by the behavioral complex of perfectionism. Thus, he has narcissistic ambition ("I will be glorious") but also perfectionistic qualities ("Do it well..."). This individual would be well motivated, but a perfectionist plodder. He would be slow. He would do it over and over again. He would chip away at something ever so slowly, so he will not go too fast, or too far all at once. He must be something of a loner. He must be somewhat subdued. He fills up his time with activities, doing, redoing, starting, not quite finishing, polishing, giving him a "workaholic" quality. His time may be filled with ambitious goals, but slow repetitive actions, so that he is always late for appointments. We propose that he may be one of the so-called obsessive-compulsive individuals of the psychiatric literature.
He has his eye on the limelight, to be sure, with a vision toward the future. But the self-flaunting aspect of the previously described narcissistic N personage is mediated by this individual's necessity to be perfect in all ways. Thus, the conceit of the narcissistic individual is moderated into persistent achievement in quiet modesty. In fact, this individual feels that he must do whatever his friends, family and society demand of him as a perfect person. He simply must try to do to the best of his ability what he feels he should do. And he feels that he should do everything. And do it perfectly. Thus, to his friends, to his family and to himself, he is a prisoner of his own sense of duty. He is a quiet achiever but at the same time a prisoner of perfection.
Although the behavioral complexes of narcissism and perfectionism appear to be acting in concert, it is apparent that the demands of modern society can lead to great conflicts in this character type. Narcissism gives him the vision of a glorious future and the possibility of the limelight, while perfectionism is the root of his excruciating, painstakingly slow progress. In addition, no human being can possibly accomplish in the time of twenty-four hours all that he expects of himself, not to mention all the demands that others place on him.
Lacking aggressive qualities, he is defenseless against aggressive types. He does not "play the game" of dominance and submission, does not split his personality to a subdued state, and cannot be induced into an aggressive-vindictive rage. He is usually not sexually aggressive in a predatory manner. Since his love relations cannot be based on a dominant-submissive relationship, he loves on the basis of his narcissistic and perfectionist qualities. In particular, he loves because he should love, and he is tender because he should be tender. In fact, he will do anything that a devoted mate should do, simply because his inner nature tells him, "I deserve it to myself and to everyone that I should do everything perfectly."
In essence, his attitude in its compulsive rigidity becomes equivalent to a "deal with life." If he pays attention to all the details of life, if everything is neatly in its place, if he has thought of everything in advance, then nothing should go wrong. And when things do go wrong, whether they are by any stretch of the imagination his fault or not, he blames himself for not having foreseen the difficulty. This may send him to the doldrums of a melancholic abject state for days or months, especially if the cause of the failure actually was some deficiency on his part.
He may be incited to the perfectionistic-narcissistic rage when frustrated by others. This begins as a few moments of inwardly directed seething, and then may break out into the narcissistic rage of defense and withdrawal.
Finally, we note that in the NP character structure we expect to find a quiet, unaggressive individual who should be content with perfecting the various aspects of his life with a minimum of conflict with others. However, in a poorly adjusted individual his inner voices may demand of him an incessant repetition of bizarre acts, so that he may attempt to satisfy some poorly-understood need for order or completeness in his life. If these acts come into conflict with the norms of his society, then he may become a compulsive gambler or bank robber, a kleptomanic collector, or even a demented ritualistic murderer. Hence, such an individual, although lacking the aggressive behavioral trait, could certainly be branded as "aggressive" by his society.
The risk of the NP type of succumbing to a psychosis of schizophrenia will be discussed in Chapter 11.
From Chapter 6: Character caricatures
We will describe the NP type with the understanding that the baseline temperament of these individuals may vary widely, from the "phlegmatic" to the "nervous."
If one were required to describe this individual as an introvert or extrovert, one would tend to say that he is a quiet, friendly, sincere, somewhat sheepish introvert. He is polite, dependable, calm, careful, conscientious, considerate and cooperative. He is modest, pleasant and cheerfully reserved. He may have a pensive, bashful quality. He is unselfish, tolerant and sympathetic. He is neat and scrupulously attentive to detail. His desk is usually neat, his affairs are in order, and his dress, although not necessarily fashionable, is impeccable. He does not have an unbridled need to adorn himself. He may have a fetish for order, symmetry, neatness, with a place for everything and everything in its place. His handwriting is usually highly legible, with every letter clearly visible. It may have a calligraphic quality. A piece of work imperfectly done or lying unfinished causes him no end of smoldering grief. He may be a compulsive housecleaner.
He has a strong sense of duty: dutifulness to his family, to his friends, to his country, perhaps to his god, and to himself. In his duty to himself he must accomplish what he must, and this may sometimes be one detailed task after another. Thus, he may develop a "workaholic" quality to his life, always seemingly busy and always late. He may be a contemplative procrastinator. He is, therefore, punctilious but not necessarily punctual.
He is almost universally liked, or regarded to be a quiet person who is benignly tolerated. In American parlance, he is often a "nice guy" or a "fine gal." He may be somewhat prudish or even pious. He seems to be rather aloof, ignoring others in a benign way as he quietly goes about his business of pursuits for his own self-satisfaction. However, he is easily approachable and almost always tries to be helpful. He may present himself as a straightforward, uncomplicated person, even a "Simple Simon," but this is misleading and it is only on closer examination that we see the stringent demands that he places on himself.
His natural facial expression is a poker face or deadpan look of perfectionist restraint. As he plays his game of cards, he holds them close to his chest, and he does not particularly wish to discuss how his game is proceeding. In fact, he secretly has everything invested in the finality of success and in the recognition of his success by others. Thus, if recognition does come in any shape or form, whether it is a colleague to bring him good cheer, or actual recognition for something well done in an actual limelight, then he will smile. And his gingival smile, whenever it breaks out through his poker-faced visage, is a sight to behold! It is a warm, radiant, captivating smile, a kind of sheepish smile, appearing suddenly like the sun breaking through the clouds, or of a Cheshire cat suddenly appearing in the mist. It is often so breathtakingly, sincerely radiant that one is led to believe that this smile by itself is enough to give the human race its redeeming social value. And it does not take much insight to realize that this smile is the smile of narcissism bursting forth through the clouds of perfectionism.
As the quiet, somewhat bashful person that he sometimes is, he may surprise others when he mounts the podium as a public speaker. Somewhat stilted at the outset, he slowly gathers momentum and may gradually become radiantly charismatic, especially if he is attempting to persuade his audience.
This individual may have so much pride invested in the recognition of his work as a "conscientious achiever," that embarrassment in the limelight is of special sensitivity to him. In fact, of all the character types, he is the one to blush the most readily. Indeed, in the Caucasian he sometimes has a pinkish or ruddy complexion. If he is male and of the appropriate body habitus, he may have a cherubic, "blushing boy" quality.
He may be quietly ambitious, but lacking qualities of the behavioral complex of aggression, this individual is unaggressive and unassertive. He may, in fact, become annoyed when others continually point this out to him. If he is in a position where he should be aggressive, for example as a baseball manager or football coach, he may sometimes adopt a loud voice, but on close inspection he is simply an unaggressive person with a loud voice. Perhaps the most aggressive act of which he is capable is to interrupt someone while he is speaking.
Being unassertive, he finds it difficult to give clear-cut orders. Rather he expects that others will know what to do by his excellent example. He goes forth, and he expects others to follow. But, of course, as they often do not, he may have serious problems maintaining discipline. He cannot berate a subordinate, and he is the master of the short, two-sentence reprimand delivered in an almost apologetic manner.
He does not "play the game" of dominance and submission. His eye contact with others is almost universally good, but does not have the intensity of the NPA type. His gestures are reserved, as is his language. Ostentatious behavior is alien to him. His laugh, even if loud, is reserved. His humor has a pleasant impish or elfish quality to it, and he is not the type to play practical jokes of the kind that might cause someone physical discomfort or harm. He enjoys social situations, but is somewhat stilted in demeanor in them.
This usually quiet, unaggressive individual easily bends to the will of others, right? Wrong! He is persistent. He is obstinate. He is recalcitrant. He is downright stubborn! He has a will all of his own, and if he wants to do something in his own orderly way, then wild horses will not be able to budge him from his position.
When criticized he will immediately, quietly, and logically defend his position. If abused, he may scowl, but he may often turn the other cheek, simply not being able to defend himself against aggressive behavior. His only defense may be recalcitrance in the face of the demands of others. He may withdraw himself from the offending individual and ignore him, or pretend not to understand his wishes. He may use various modes of passive resistance, or make lame excuses for his recalcitrance. If pressed further he may quarrel, even vigorously, but he will not fight unless he is cornered. If he does, at long last, punch someone in the nose, it will be in the context of escape or of a narcissistic rage of vanity rather than an aggressive rage of vindictiveness.
He may appear as a somewhat negativistic "passive resister" or "chronic criticizer." If his sense of order is intruded upon repeatedly, he may become more and more negativistic and more and more recalcitrant to the point of resemblance to a PA type. Under greater stress, his negativistic recalcitrance can degenerate either into a catatonic state of near immobility or into a harried nervous state of agitation. In such a latter state he may closely resemble the non-compliant submissive type, or even a hypomanic NA type.
He tends to suffer in silence and to be self-berating. He tends not to be vindictive, neither in a vindictive rage nor in calculated vindictiveness, nor even in frustrating others or begrudging them what is their due. He holds no grudges and sometimes appears to have infinite patience and understanding. He may tease others good-naturedly, even persistently, but this is probably a Western cultural habit, and he is essentially devoid of sadistic trends. If his vanity or his pride in perfection is wounded, then he may respond in a narcissistic rage, as has been described earlier.
He is often drawn to activities in which painstaking, repetitive action is required. He may be an artist, a musician, a poet, a craftsman, a collector, or a do-it-yourself tinkerer. He is often the dutiful writer of long, careful letters to his family and he may keep a diary.
As an example of an NP type, we present the following account of Dieter's father, the parent of an autistic child, taken from Bosch's monograph:
« Dieter's father had worked his way up via elementary school and a trade apprenticeship in evening classes to the position of civil engineering technician and got his engineer's diploma at the late age of 46. He was a do-it-yourself addict and was engrossed in technology. Outside his job he was reportedly somewhat out of touch with the rest of the world. He had a habit of composing long, typewritten reports about his son with dates carefully set out in the margins and many underlinings of points that he thought important. Despite the fact that he could have telephoned us, he preferred to communicate by means of painstakingly prepared letters. There is no doubt that he went out of his way to cater for his boy's special technical interests, which were further encouraged and influenced by his own do-it-yourself activities. While Dieter was with us at the hospital and he was away on holiday, he wrote his son a letter which, apart from the first sentence dealing with the nice place the parents were staying at, was exclusively given over to a description of all the locomotives complete with type number and colour that the couple had seen during their journey to the resort. »
In the context of mating, the NP type is not aggressive and usually not predatory, although he will certainly acknowledge that he is a sexual being. If he is promiscuous, the overtones of aggression or exploitation are absent. The subjugated love of the aggressive type is unknown to him, as is sadomasochistic sexuality. His love relations are based on his narcissistic and perfectionist qualities: his love is tender rather than unabashedly passionate. He tends not to "fall in love" easily because the decision to devote himself to a mate must be a perfect decision, and such a perfect decision, like all of his decisions, is not easily made on the spur of the moment. If he enters into a long-term relation with an aggressive-vindictive personage, for example with an NA type, he may suffer in silence like a "brave wife" or a "henpecked husband," all the while berating himself for not being perfect enough to make the relationship an ideal one.
Finally, in his deal with life: "I will be perfect, so life will be perfect to me" he is especially vulnerable to any failure intruding into his existence, whether it be a flat tire on his automobile, a natural disaster or the loss of a loved one. Such failures may register not only as deep disappointments, but as hopeless reversals in what he perceives should be a natural order in life. The loss of a loved one, in particular of a family member, is an incomprehensible, unbearable crushing blow to him. If he does not throw himself on the pyre, then he will enter a melancholic abject state of deep mourning. He will wear black, literally or figuratively, for months or years and often will take his grief to the grave.
His requirements for narcissistic glory, but especially for perfectionist order, may lead him to abject depression, which may surprise even those who thought that they knew him well. The news of his fate will be met by the stunned disbelief of his neighbors, friends and other family members. They will say, shaking their heads, "We never had the slightest inkling that something was not right... Everything seemed to be in such perfect order..."
In the final analysis, his lack of free will has a poignant quality. He may at heart be so innately sympathetic, so intrinsically devoid of evil... so "good," that it is sometimes pathetic to see him go through life, whatever his real accomplishments, a prisoner of his own demands on himself.
The NP individual has certainly made his mark in history. Both male and female monarchs of the NP type have often emerged as just, strong-willed rulers. However, they sometimes appear as well-meaning "lambs among the wolves" (e.g., Catherine of Aragon or Tsar Nicholas II).
To conclude our discussion, we refer the reader to Herndon's Life of Lincoln:
« His penmanship, after some practice, became so regular in form that it excited the admiration of other and younger boys. One of the latter, Joseph C. Richardson, said that "Abe Lincoln was the best penman in the neighborhood."
« He was a very sensitive man modest to the point of diffidence and often hid himself in the masses to prevent the discovery of his identity. He was not indifferent, however, to approbation and public opinion. He had no disgusting egotism and no pompous pride, no aristocracy, no haughtiness, no vanity. Merging together the qualities of his nature he was a meek, quiet, unobtrusive gentleman...
« He was unusually considerate of the feelings of other men, regardless of their rank, condition, or station. At first sight he struck one with his plainness, simplicity of manner, sincerity, candor, and truthfulness. He had no double interests and no overwhelming dignity with which to chill the air around his visitor. He was always easy to approach and thoroughly democratic. He seemed to throw a charm around every man who ever met him. To be in his presence was a pleasure, and no man ever left his company with injured feelings unless most richly deserved...
« Lincoln's melancholy never failed to impress any man who ever saw or knew him. The perpetual look of sadness was his most prominent feature...»
There is, in short, little doubt that "Honest Abe" Lincoln was an individual of the NP character type. With regard to his melancholic nature, some say that this was rooted in the death of his beloved Ann Rutledge (probably another NP type). For years after her death, Lincoln was known to have revered the entire Rutledge family. The tendency of the NP type to assume a melancholic nature will be revisited in Chapter 11.
From Chapter 11: Disorders of human behavior
Obsessive compulsive personality -- Although in reality all of the character types are obsessive and compulsive, we believe that most of the descriptions of the psychiatric literature correspond to our NP personage. It is quite humorous that in the literature the NP personage is often referred to as an "anal sadistic" type.
Classes and types of schizophrenias
Note: In this chapter we present our contrarian view that infantile autism should be classified among the schizophrenias. According to this view, each character type (N, A, NP, PA, etc.) has its own distinct schizophrenic syndromes.
Juvenile-onset schizophrenia in the NP type: infantile autism
There is little doubt in our mind that the autistic child ("Kanner's syndrome") is an NP individual whose behavioral complex of narcissism has not been expressed during infancy. We thus describe this state by the notation N=P and we realize that we have here an individual who is deprived of his only possible source of ambition, narcissism, and who is left in a state of pure perfectionism with nothing tangible to perfect.
In support of our conclusion we offer the following information culled from the medical literature:
*The behavior patterns of the autistic child describe well the ritualism and desire to preserve order that we would expect from the pure perfectionist. *In much of the older medical literature autistic children have been confused with other child schizophrenics, and for good reason: we believe that the majority of the latter are pure perfectionists of the PA type. *Autistic children have no strong family history of psychosis, almost as if they appeared in a random fashion among NP individuals. There appears to be no link between infantile autism and the more common schizophrenias. Many parents of autistic children are described as being "narcissistic," "intelligent," "obsessive," "perfectionistic," and "humorless." Since an NP infant must have at least one parent who is an NP type (or N type, see Chapter 10), we see that the personality characteristics of parents in infantile autism are explained by the NPA model. A character sketch of an NP parent of an autistic child was given in Chapter 6 ( see above). *The extreme rarity of infantile autism (an incidence of less than 1 per 1,000), as well as its very low recurrence rate in siblings (about 2 percent), may be explained by the supposition that the genetic and environmental factors that lead to infantile autism are far more critical than the ones that lead to the more common forms of childhood schizophrenia.
But why is the sex ratio of autistic children predominantly male (about 2 to 4 boys for every girl)? The answer to this question is not clear. Is it possible that X- or Y-linked genes, or hormonal factors, play a role in the etiology of infantile autism?
*Lacking the ability to express behavioral complex of narcissism, autistic infants do not exhibit the characteristic smile of recognition that normally appears by the age of about two months. *Autistic children have no natural instinct for aggression. If they do develop "aggressive" tendencies these are of a mechanistic, retaliatory nature, and are a learned behavioral response. (The highly stylized, ritualistic mannerisms of the arts of self-defense of certain Oriental societies come to mind). With the occurrence of poorly-directed hyperactivity, the so-called "aggressive" tendencies of autistic children may be interpreted in the context of the narcissistic rage, or tantrum. That is, the child is not so much being "aggressive" as he is lashing out in a diffuse fashion in the context of the stifling of his narcissistic ambition.
Richard, a less severely impaired autistic German adolescent describes in his own poetic words his tendency to non-aggression in this selection from Bosch's monograph Juvenile Autism:
« "Resteten" was the name I gave to my dream world, a world full of harmony and peace in which nothing evil happened, a world rotating round some distant sun far out in the universe. When I was a small boy, whenever life here on earth seemed difficult and incomprehensible, I liked to retire there to its majestic mountain scenery through which the fast-running Olympia River flowed. This happened very often.
« For from my earliest childhood on I was different from the others of my age, and for children this is of course sufficient reason to mock, punch, and torture. I was unable to defend myself, because a deep-rooted feeling prevented me from raising my hand to hurt another. As a result mixing with schoolmates, which is for most people an enjoyable part of going to school, was torture for me. Nevertheless, on the very first day I found a friend who was always ready to "roll his sleeves up" for me. His name, Inno, is more distinctive than he himself ever was; he is a practical, down-to-earth boy who (unfortunately for me) went back recently to live in America where he was born and where he fits in well. »
* * *
One explanation for the association of autism with the NP character type is that autism is part of a spectrum of developmental disorders based on several (or many) genetic causes that occur in all of the NPA types. Practitioners who give the diagnosis of "autistic child" give it mainly on the basis of a behavioral syndrome that involves compulsive, repetitive and perfectionistic activity, hence mainly in NP children with a variety of developmental disorders.
In consequence, the category of "autistic child" would not be a genetically homogeneous group from the point of view of developmental disorders. The apparent homogeneity of the category would stem from the fact that practitioners have simply selected NP children to put in a group having the label of "autistic child."
Thus, the NPA genes themselves would have nothing at all to do with "causing" the developmental defect. Being a NP child would not predispose the child to autism. However, being an NP child with a developmental disorder would predispose the child's being placed in the category of "autism" by practitioners.
The "idiot savant"
These individuals can perform phenomenally complicated numerical computations mentally, often without being able to explain how they arrive at their answers. Various authors have related the idiot savant to the autistic child, hence we are drawn to the conclusion that this mental wizard is also of the NP character type.
Adult-onset schizophrenia in the NP type
From an examination of the psychiatric literature, including case studies and descriptions of premorbid personalities, we come to the conclusion that the mature NP individual is vulnerable to several different subtypes of schizophrenic decompensation. We believe that the subtype is determined by the premorbid NP personality subtype mainly through inheritance
A clue to the nature of the schizophrenic decompensation at maturity in the NP type may be found in the case history of Deiter, an autistic child presented in Bosch's monograph. (A sketch of Deiter's father was given above). When Deiter was about 14 years old...
« ...the boy complained more and more of various physical ailments: in his intestines, in his genitals, and in 1962 he said he thought he was being poisoned; consequently his parents, who believed his story, took him away from the new home in which, in the meantime, he had been placed. At home with his parents, however, he soon became so aggressive and destructive that they immediately had to put him once more in the psychiatric clinic of the local university... When he was admitted he reported hallucinations. At home he had heard the voices of his ex-schoolmates who insulted him and called "filthy things" after him; according to him they spoke to him through the air. He also reported that the voices had continually called to him telling him he was being poisoned, that there was poison in his coffee. He therefore spat everything out when he was at home. He complained about pain in his genitals and said, "My 'Peter' is killing me. I wish I was a girl." During a later stay in the psychiatric clinic of Marburg University it was also observed that he suffered from vivid acoustic hallucinations. Most of the progress in making contact that he had shown during his 2 years in the children's home had been lost again. More and more often he was aggressive and destructive and obviously much preoccupied with his bodily sensations, particularly those centered on his genitals and anus... »
The case of Deiter indicates that at maturity the normally quiet NP individual can undergo an acute schizophrenic decompensation in which the characteristics of hyperactivity, hypochondria, diffuse "aggression," acute paranoia, and auditory hallucinations are prominent. Such a picture is also present in some of the adult schizophrenic patients studied by M. Bleuler in Switzerland. If we speculate that Bleuler's patients came from a population somewhat resembling the Punctilious habitancy (having a predominance of NP types) presented in the previous chapter, then we may surmise that the majority of Bleuler's adult onset chronic patients were schizophrenics of the NP type.)
This conclusion is important since this indicates that, like Deiter above, many NP schizophrenics are characterized as paranoid types. This is an unexpected finding, since the premorbid personality of most NP and N-P individuals is not at all paranoid. It explains why the schizophrenias from two very different personality types (NP and PA) have been lumped together throughout the years. It seems that the agitated paranoid state of the NP schizophrenic is more closely related to the narcissistic rage, in which the individual diffusely lashes out at people surrounding him, seeing them only as shadowy beings intent on frustrating him from attaining a sense of order in his life or from reaching an indistinct limelight flickering in the distance...
Benis A.M. (1985, 2nd edition 2008): Chaps. 5, 6 & 11, in Toward Self & Sanity: On the genetic origins of the human character. Psychological Dimensions, New York, pp 54-56, 104-109, 302-306.
Bleuler M. (1978): The Schizophrenic Disorders: Long-term Patient and Family Studies. Yale University Press, New Haven.
Bosch G. (1970): Infantile Autism. Springer-Verlag, New York.
Herndon W.H. and Weik J.W. (1888): Life of Lincoln. Fine Editions Press, Cleveland.
McAdoo W.G. and DeMyer M.K. (1978): "Personality characteristics of parents", in Rutter M. and Schopler E. (eds.): Autism. Plenum, New York.